· The foundation of the Tula arms plant
· The prosperity of Tula gunsmiths mastership
· Tulsky oruzheiny zavod in the 19th century
· Tulsky oruzheiny zavod in the beginning of the 20th century
· Tulsky oruzheiny zavod during World War II
· Tulsky oruzheiny zavod in the post-war period
· TOZ Today
The foundation of the Tula arms plant
Under the Decree of Peter I of 15th February 1712 the Tula Arms Plant was established. The plant was equipped modernly for those times: water driven machines, gun drilling machines, grinding wheels, hammers, outer and inside finishing barrels machines. For the first time the checking gauges were used in the mechanisms production. The usage of advanced manufacture technologies of the XVIII century improved the quality of output goods greatly. As a result by one of the Tsar's decree the weapons produced in Tula were established as master samples.
In 1720 the factory produced about 22 000 reliable, light infantry and dragoon guns, flintlock pistols; from 1749, the mass production of cold arms (blades, sabers, backswords and rapiers) was arranged.
The prosperity of Tula gunsmiths mastership
The second half of XVIII century was marked with the prosperity of Tula gunsmith craft. Artistically decorated Tula arms and civilian articles were in great demand. The invention of unique and smart technique as the miter cutting on steel as well as the other ways of metal finishing and wooden articles were rooted in that time. By the end of the XVIII century the names of remarkable gunsmiths became well-known, among them Ivan Pushkin, Ilya Lyalin — the inventor of double-barrel breech-loading flintlock shotgun, Ivan Polin — the designer of one of the first models of multicharged firearm.
Tulsky oruzheiny zavod in the 19th century
Reconstructed in the XIX century Tulsky oruzheiny zavod became one of the best plant in Europe. In 1879 the well-known Berdan rifle with a modificated sliding bolt was put into production. In an exemplary shop the original models of different small arms and hunting guns were developed. The output of various goods increased: single-barrel and double-barrel muzzle loading guns, centre-fire breech-loading guns, smooth-bored and joint guns. A talented designer S.I. Mosin took part in devising the damascus steel technology which was used in the barrels manufacturing.
For several years S. I. Mosin had been designing the different magazine rifles. In 1891, after complex tests of two rifles (Mosin’s rifle and Belgium designer and manufacturer L. Nagant’s rifle) Mosin’s rifle under the name "Three-linear rifle Model 1891" (the 0.375 magazine rifle) was in service of the Russian Army.
Tulsky oruzheiny zavod in the beginning of the 20th century
In 1902 a fully mechanized mass production of hunting shotguns was set up (a hammer shotgun of “B” model and then Ivashentsev’s shotguns). Tula Arms Plant was the only plant in the world to manufacture a remarkable 1910 Maxim- machine gun with complete interchangeability of parts.
In the 20s the factory produced the "P" Model shotguns, rifled carbine designed Model NK-8.2 by Kochetov, small bore rifles TOZ-1 and TOZ-2, single-loading rifles TOZ-7 and TOZ-8 intended for sport shooting shotgun TOZ-10.
With the aim to unite all designers of the plant, the planning and designing office was created in 1927. The result of that union was the invention of air machineguns PV - 1 and ShKAS.
In 1939 F.V. Tokarev created and set up the mass production of a self – loading rifle SVT – 38, it was equal to M1
Garand, one of the best self-loading rifles during WWII.
From 1927 to 1938 a new step of textile machinery construction was made - the first spinning machines
were designed and produced in the country.
During 1927-1938 the first domestic spinning frames were designed and manufactured at the plant, a new step of textile engineering was made.
In 1932—1939 the manufacture of milling machines was mastered, three models: universal, vertical and horizontal millers were put into the mass production.
In 1927-1939 the ShKAS and UB aircraft machine guns, cannons B-2 and Tokarev’s SVT-38, the most quick-firing rifle in the years of World War II were put into production.
Tulsky oruzheiny zavod during World War II
During WWII working under the motto “Everything is for the front, everything is for the victory” the Tula gunsmiths produced SVT-38/40 sniping rifles, ShVAK aircraft cannons, Nagant revolvers and TT pistols. During WWII working under the motto “Everything is for the front, everything is for the victory” the Tula gunsmiths produced SVT-38/40 sniping rifles, ShVAK aircraft cannons, Nagant revolvers and TT pistols.
Tulsky oruzheiny zavod in the post-war period
The post-war time was the time of fruitful and hard work in the creation of various sporting and hunting fire-arms). Such models as double-barrel hammerless shotgun T0Z-25, the "BM" double-barrel hammer gun and small-caliber rifles TOZ-8M, TOZ-12, TOZ-16, TOZ-17, TOZ-18 were designed in these years.
At the same time the plant output
In 1965 the plant produced a famous over-and-under double-barrel shotgun TOZ-34 designed by N. I. Korovyakov and V. P. Ochnev. In 1961—1982 the Tula Arms Plant received an production order of the worldwide known Kalashnikov assault rifle ( it was put into production 6 modifications of the rifle), anti-tank guided missile as the part of the "Malyutka", "Fagot", "Konkurs" complexes; underbarrel grenade launcher "Kostyor".
The plant has gone a long and glorious way.
A new generation of gunsmiths have created its unique and outstanding style that units all known artistic methods of gun making using various precious materials — gold, silver, bone, pearl. Today traditions of the great Tula gunsmith Levsha are alive.
Considering a historical importance of the TOZ as the oldest arms enterprise in Russia, in 1920 it was decided to found Tula Armoury Museum with the aim to save many remarkable and interesting things about the history of the arms production, Tula craftsmanship and unique samples of arms .
Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod (Tula Arms Plant) is founded in 1712 under the Decree of Peter I. In 1993 it is become a joint stock company. Following the order of state corporation Rostec Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod, JSC has become a member of the defense holding NPO High Precisions Weapons, JSC. This step assists with the fulfillment of the Government armament program, implementation of tasks of military-technical cooperation with foreign partners and increasing of goods competitiveness.Following 3 centuries old traditions of arms craftsmanship the plant offers customers and partners its military goods: 9M113M high-precision antitank missile with tandem war head type to engage vehicles equipped with the dynamic armor, fortified fire emplacements and low flying helicopters; 9-mm small-size assault rifle AM, its dimensions are equal to the dimensions of a submachine gun but the firing range and hitting effect of the assault rifle are considerably better to engage the enemy manpower and not armored vehicles at a distance of 200 m; 9 mm special assault rifle AS and 9-mm special sniper rifle VSS with sighting range of 400 m are intended for noiseless and flameless shooting, hit enemy manpower, protected with bulletproof vests.